Wednesday, June 26, 2013

CentOS 5.9 - x86_64 - ipp2p installation

1. install CentOS 5.9 with 'iptables-1.3.5-9.2.el5_8.src.rpm'
2. Download & install 'centalt-release-5-3.noarch.rpm' from
3. ipt_ipp2p-0.8.2-2.el5.x86_64.rpm 
4. kmod-ipp2p-0.8.2-2.el5.x86_64.rpm
5. modeprobe  ipt_ipp2p
6. lsmod |  grep  ipp2p
7. Must show like followings

ipt_ipp2p              40064  1
x_tables               50505  7 ipt_MASQUERADE,iptable_nat,xt_state,ip_tables,ipt_ipp2p,xt_string,xt_tcpudp

8. -A FORWARD -m ipp2p --kazaa --gnu --edk --dc --bit --apple --soul --winmx --ares -j DROP

9. iptables -L FORWARD -n -v

Tuesday, June 25, 2013

Operational Support System (OSS)

An operational support system (OSS) is a set of programs that help a communications service provider monitor, control, analyze and manage a telephone or computer network. As the traditional voice telephone systems converges with packet-oriented Internet traffic (including VoIP), broadband applications such as teleconferencing and DSL, more sophisticated systems like OSS are needed activities like ordering and tracking network components (including IP addresses), usage and traffic patterns, billing and reporting.

An operational support system (OSS) is a group of computer programs or an IT system used by communications service providers for monitoring, controlling, analyzing and managing a computer or telephone network system. OSS software is specifically dedicated to telecommunications service providers and mainly used for supporting network processes to maintain network inventory, configure network components, provision services and manage faults.

With the growth of new broadband and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) systems, OSS and network management are now applied to home networks.
An OSS is also known as a business support system (BSS).

Techopedia explains Operational Support System (OSS)

Prior to the 1970s, many OSS activities were executed via manual management processes. In the early to mid-1970s, telecommunications companies created numerous hardware and software systems that were used to automate OSS activities. This is considered a driving factor in the creation of the C programming language and Unix. For example, Bell used multiple OSS systems, including the Remote Memory Administration System (RMAS), Switching Control Center System (SCCS), Service Evaluation System (SES) and Trunks Integrated Record Keeping System (TIRKS).

Cheap and simple OSS integration via automated customer interfaces remains a strategic challenge for telecommunications and Internet service providers (ISP).

The four key OSS elements are as follows:

  • Processes
  • Data
  • Applications
  • Technology
In the 1990s, a four-layer OSS model emerged, as follows:

  • Business Management Level
  • Service Management Level
  • Network Management Level
  • Element Management Level

CentOS 5.9 - Squid proxy & SquidGuard Configuration

Squid Cache: Version 2.6.STABLE21
vi   /etc/squid/squid.conf

redirect_program     /usr/bin/squidGuard   -c  /etc/squid/squidGuard.conf
redirect_children    1
yum  -y  install  squidGuard

vi    /etc/squid/squidGuard.conf
delete everything from "squidGuard.conf" file and add the followings

dbhome /var/lib/squidguard/db/blacklists
logdir /var/log/squidGuard

dest adult {
        domainlist      adult/domains
        urllist         adult/urls

dest hacking {
        domainlist      hacking/domains
        urllist         hacking/urls

dest malware {
        domainlist      malware/domains
        urllist         malware/urls

dest warez {
        domainlist      warez/domains
        urllist         warez/urls

dest lingerie {
        domainlist      lingerie/domains

dest social_networks {
        domainlist     social_networks/domains
        urllist         social_networks/urls

dest white      {

        domainlist      white/domains
        urllist         white/urls

acl {

        default {
                    pass white !adult !hacking !malware !warez !lingerie !social_networks  all
mkdir   /var/lib/squidguard
mkdir   /var/lib/squidguard/db
cd  /var/lib/squidguard/db/

tar  -xvzf  blacklists.tar.gz
cd   /var/lib/squidguard/

chown -R  squid:squid  .

chown  -R   squid:squid   /var/log/squidGuard/.
squidGuard   -C  all
tail   -f   /var/log/squidGuard/squidGuard.log

squid   -k    reconfigure

Friday, June 21, 2013

LTE - High-speed cellular data transmission network

Definition of:LTE
(Long Term Evolution) The latest high-speed cellular data transmission network. LTE is a 4G technology, surpassing the speeds of the widely used 3G networks. Apple aficionados eagerly awaited the iPhone 5 because it was the first iPhone to support LTE.

Available for the two major cellphone systems worldwide (GSM and CDMA), LTE is envisioned to provide global interoperability. However, LTE operates in more than three dozen frequency bands, making it difficult to build a phone that can tune in that many channels.

Approved in 2008 with download speeds up to 173 Mbps, LTE uses a different air interface and packet structure than 3G. See cellular generations and 3G.

LTE - From 3G to 4G Officially
The ITU previously designated LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) as the true 4G evolution. However, in late 2010, it widened its definition to include regular LTE, along with WiMAX and HSPA+, as bona fide 4G technologies since they are faster than 3G. See IMT-Advanced.

LTE uses the Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) air interface, which is based on OFDMA and is a departure from CDMA and the TDMA used in GSM (see GSM and CDMA). In addition, rather than proprietary packet structures, LTE is based entirely on IP packets, and voice travels over IP (VoIP). The IP part of LTE is called "Evolved Packet System" (EPS), which was previously called "System Architecture Evolution" (SAE). LTE was defined by the 3G Partnership Project in the 3GPP Release 8 specification. See IP Multimedia Subsystem.

Operations Support Systems

Operations support systems are computer systems used by telecommunications service providers. The term OSS most frequently describes "network systems" dealing with the telecom network itself, supporting processes such as maintaining network inventory, provisioning services, configuring network components, and managing faults. The complementary term business support systems or BSS is a newer term and typically refers to "business systems" dealing with customers, supporting processes such as taking orders, processing bills, and collecting payments. The two systems together are often abbreviated OSS/BSS, BSS/OSS or simply B/OSS.

Different subdivisions of the BSS/OSS systems are made, depending on whether they follow the TM Forum's diagrams and terminology, industry research institutions or BSS/OSS vendors own view. Nevertheless in general, an OSS covers at least the application areas:

Network management systems

Service delivery

Service fulfillment, including the network inventory, activation and provisioning

Service assurance

Customer care

History and development of OSS

Before about 1970, many OSS activities were performed by manual administrative processes. However, it became obvious that much of this activity could be replaced by computers. In the next 5 years or so, the telephone companies created a number of computer systems (or software applications) which automated much of this activity. This was one of the driving factors for the development of the Unix operating system and the C programming language. The Bell System purchased their own product line of PDP 11 computers from Digital Equipment Corporation for a variety of OSS applications. OSS systems used in the Bell System include AMATPS, CSOBS, EADAS, RMAS, Switching Control Center System (SCCS), Service Evaluation System (SES), Trunks Integrated Record Keeping System (TIRKS), and many more. OSS systems from this era are described in the Bell System Technical Journal, Bell Labs Record, and Telcordia Technologies (now part of Ericsson) SR-2275.

Many OSS systems were initially not linked to each other and often required manual intervention. For example, consider the case where a customer wants to order a new telephone service. The ordering system would take the customer's details and details of their order, but would not be able to configure the telephone exchange directly — this would be done by a switch management system. Details of the new service would need to be transferred from the order handling system to the switch management system — and this would normally be done by a technician re-keying the details from one screen into another — a process often referred to as "swivel chair integration". This was clearly another source of inefficiency, so the focus for the next few years was on creating automated interfaces between the OSS applications — OSS integration. Cheap and simple OSS integration remains a major goal of most telecom companies.

A brief history of OSS architecture

A lot of the work on OSS has been centered on defining its architecture. Put simply, there are four key elements of OSS:


the sequence of events


the information that is acted upon


the components that implement processes to manage data


how we implement the applications

During the 1990s, new OSS architecture definitions were done by the ITU-T in its TMN model. This established a 4-layer model of TMN applicable within an OSS:

Business Management Level (BML)

Service Management Level (SML)

Network Management Level (NML)

Element Management Level (EML)

(Note: a fifth level is mentioned at times being the elements themselves, though the standards speak of only four levels) This was a basis for later work. Network management was further defined by the ISO using the FCAPS model - Fault, Configura
Original article available


What does the operator needs in order to do business?
To start with customers and a market to serve of course! that means a geographical area with people living in it.

This area needs to be covered by a network,

today more than 40 % of the world's mobile traffic goes through Ericsson networks.

But what do operators need to do to make their business a success?

Control costs? Find new sources of revenue? Provide a better customer experience?
The answer is yes, all of these things in fact and they all come together in the processes and systems that keep an operator's business in business.

Operations Support Systems and Business Support Systems or OSS / BSS.

One thing we have learned about telecom over the past 130 years is that it's always evolving.

So working with OSS and BSS means always adapting, changing, fine tuning, improving and updating. it's means knowing exactly what's going on from one end to the other, through all the network elements and it's not just in mobile networks but all the parts, fixed and mobile, that make up the Networked Society.
A network needs to be planned in order to work at it's best.
it may need to cover mountains, forests, lake, small towns and big cities on order to reach every customer, then the network needs to be built.

And then once it's built, someone decides to construct eight new skyscrapers, a business park and a football stadium in the city. So even after the network has been planned and built there is optimization a process that never really ends.

Getting people started using all the things the Networked Society can offer -> like calling, texting, watching news, twittering and so on.
on all sorts of devices, fixed and mobile in all kinds of locations is called fulfillment.

This involves getting all the different parts of the network, delivered by different vendor and all those services to work together to communicate.
Then imagine that suddenly for some unexpected reason a base station goes down.

These guys here in the Network Operation Center can pickup the slightest disturbance in the network.
Their role in the chain of operations is called assurance, we call all of this OSS.

But operators also need to make money, it's a business after all. They need revenue management.
So to look after the girl with a post-paid subscription and the guy with a pre-paied card,there have to be mechanisms for billing and charging in place.

These insure customers pay the correct rate for different services at different locations at different times.

for example - if a customer has used up all the data has paied to receive the data rate automatically drops,the subscriber gets a notification and invitation to purchase more data at a higher speed.

When customer need to get a hold of their operator maybe to change their address, ask a question or report a fault they need to turn to customer support.
applications to handle this dialog are called Customer Relationship Management or CRM.

All these systems the ones that looking after the business are referred to as BSS.
Ericsson has been doing all this for operators for 130 years.
but the complexity and the scale of today's multivendor networks and service offerings are staggering.
and with 50 billion connected devices expects around the world by 2020.. let's just say it won't get any easier.

A handful of brilliant engineers in a room full of maps that's how network planning was handled 25 years ago.

Today it's all automated the systems and applications constantly being optimized to handle problems in the networks.
Enormous volumes of data need to be processed analyzed and translated into ways to improve the customer experience.

The main focus of Network Operation Centers used to be keeping base stations up and running,while today they focus more on the actual services passing through the network.

So these days they are often referred to as Service Operation Centers.

Customers calling for support don't want to wait for answers on why something isn't working or how much data they are allowed to download or to find out about their invoices.
Operators need to have complete end to end overview and control of the information in real time, they need to have answers ready before the customers even call customer support.

OSS and BSS it's about finding the best ways to run a network and the best ways to run the business.

For Ericsson it means having complete and constant overview.

For Operators it means Ericsson helping them improve their bottom line.

For customers in the end it's all about creating a better experience.